Last Updated: July 19, References. This article was co-authored by Meredith Juncker, PhD. Her studies are focused on proteins and neurodegenerative diseases. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.
Last Updated: March 29, References. This article was co-authored by Bess Ruff, MA. She has conducted survey work for marine spatial planning projects in the Caribbean and provided research support as a graduate fellow for the Sustainable Fisheries Group. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.
For students in lab courses, nothing feels more pointless than just going through the motions of a lab procedure without understanding why it is significant. Emphasize to students that experimental science is the basis for the models they learn about in lecture. Lab, unlike lecture, represents professional science in practice; if students recognize this, they will gain a better understanding of what science truly is and may be more motivated in their lab work.
Non-metal atoms bond covalently, resulting in the formation of either neutral molecules or polyatomic ions. A covalent bond is formed when non-metal atoms share their valence electrons, which they do in order to achieve filled valence orbitals like their nearest noble gas neighbor. This means that most bonded non-metal atoms will acquire a total of eight valence electrons via the sharing process — often referred to as the octet rule. A notable exception is hydrogen, which only needs to acquire two electrons to be like its nearest noble gas neighbor, helium.