NLM Customer Support. In Class 1 , students review and define words, stigma and stigmatize, as well as find its use from three different texts—a blog excerpt and an activity introduction text. First students listen to an audio excerpt of the speech. Secondly they read the whole speech and identify one interesting item in it.
The human immunodeficiency viruses HIV are two species of Lentivirus a subgroup of retrovirus that infect humans. Over time, they cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS ,   a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Research has shown for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples that HIV is untransmittable through condomless sexual intercourse if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load. HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus ,  part of the family Retroviridae. Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase , that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle.
When HIV first began infecting humans in the s, scientists were unaware of its existence. The medical community, politicians and support organizations have made incredible progress in the fight against this formerly unknown and heavily stigmatized virus. Infection rates have fallen or stabilized in many countries across the world, but we have a long way to go.
We're hearing about "functional" cures, better drugs, fewer side effects and longer lives. There are still shadows here and there—not enough Americans know their HIV status and transmission rates are going up in certain groups. But knowing what's going on could save your life. In March of , reports emerged of the first " functional cure " for HIV, meaning the virus was nearly undetectable even after discontinuing medications.