Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including invariant theory , the calculus of variations , commutative algebra , algebraic number theory , the foundations of geometry , spectral theory of operators and its application to integral equations , mathematical physics , and the foundations of mathematics particularly proof theory. Hilbert adopted and defended Georg Cantor 's set theory and transfinite numbers. In , he presented a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century. Hilbert and his students contributed significantly to establishing rigor and developed important tools used in modern mathematical physics. Hilbert is known as one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic. In late , Hilbert entered the Friedrichskolleg Gymnasium Collegium fridericianum , the same school that Immanuel Kant had attended years before ; but, after an unhappy period, he transferred to late and graduated from early the more science-oriented Wilhelm Gymnasium.

Malware a portmanteau for malicious software is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer , server , client , or computer network [1] [2] by contrast, software that causes unintentional harm due to some deficiency is typically described as a software bug. Programs are also considered malware if they secretly act against the interests of the computer user. For example, at one point Sony music Compact discs silently installed a rootkit on purchasers' computers with the intention of preventing illicit copying, but which also reported on users' listening habits, and unintentionally created extra security vulnerabilities. A range of antivirus software , firewalls and other strategies are used to help protect against the introduction of malware, to help detect it if it is already present, and to recover from malware-associated malicious activity and attacks. Many early infectious programs, including the first Internet Worm , were written as experiments or pranks. Malware is sometimes used broadly against government or corporate websites to gather guarded information, [9] or to disrupt their operation in general. However, malware can be used against individuals to gain information such as personal identification numbers or details, bank or credit card numbers, and passwords.

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