Thucydides has been dubbed the father of " scientific history " by those who accept his claims to have applied strict standards of impartiality and evidence-gathering and analysis of cause and effect, without reference to intervention by the deities, as outlined in his introduction to his work. He also has been called the father of the school of political realism , which views the political behavior of individuals and the subsequent outcomes of relations between states as ultimately mediated by, and constructed upon, the emotions of fear and self-interest. More generally, Thucydides developed an understanding of human nature to explain behavior in such crises as plagues , massacres , and civil war. In spite of his stature as a historian, modern historians know relatively little about Thucydides's life. The most reliable information comes from his own History of the Peloponnesian War , in which he mentions his nationality, paternity, and birthplace.
ESSAY: Compare the ways that herodotus and thucydides approached the writing of history.
This entry takes as its focal point the philosophical contributions of Anna Julia Cooper with an emphasis on her scholarship and some attention to her commitments as an educator and activist. Authoring one of the earliest book-length analyses of the unique situation of Black women in the United States, Cooper offers clearly articulated insights about racialized sexism and sexualized racism without ignoring the significance of class and labor, education and intellectual development, and conceptions of democracy and citizenship. The entry concludes with a biographical sketch of Cooper in order to prioritize her scholarship and critically engage her theories rather than commencing by recounting her life story. Cooper takes an intersectional approach to examining the interlocking systems of race, gender, and class oppression—explicitly articulating how Black women are simultaneously impacted by racism the race problem and sexism the woman question and yet she is either an unknown or unacknowledged by white women, white men, or Black men factor in examining or eliminating these systems of oppression. For these reasons, Cooper argues, Black women have a unique epistemological standpoint from which to observe society and its oppressive systems as well as a unique ethical contribution to make in confronting and correcting these oppressive systems. Other central themes in Voice include the importance of education and intellectual development; the necessity of respecting difference and the special contribution that each racial group makes for human progress; an economic, materialist, and existential conceptualization of value or worth; and a theory of truth.
Get access to this section to get all the help you need with your essay and educational goals. History is the science whose business is to study events not accessible to our observations, and to study these events inferentially Philippine Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences History as a narrative which of written, visual, oral or a combination of all these about past events that has a meaning to a certain group of people in a given time and place Ambeth Ocampo. History is the study of human achievement.
There is no doubt that ancient civilizations made significant and important contributions in all fields of life for humankind. These contributions allowed humans to develop and function better in their daily lives; thus societies managed to make big leaps in their economic and political development, as well as cultural production and their religion, whilst simultaneously leaving a legacy in evolutionary history for future generations. This consequently causes specialization and modernization, which eases such operations even more. Below is a list of some of these contributions.